Studying Wildfire Management: Northern Exposures Meeting + CAG

This May, I pre-empted my Summer field season by testing out my proposed dissertation research at a couple of conferences. For my PhD fieldwork, I’ve decided to (a la an ethnographic refusal) examine a contamination issue closer to my home.

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The Canadian military in Prince Albert, SK, during wildfire evacuations in 2015.

In Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, where I’m from, wildfires are a major source of contaminant exposure via smoke, and– as much research has pointed out– often result in major displacement issues. So far, much of the research on wildfires has focused on the experiences of evacuated communities. This research has been in human dimensions and medical anthropology, and is concerned about how the North’s primarily Indigenous residents encounter wildfires and evacuations, focusing on the ways in which Northern life and culture becomes disrupted. For my research, I’ll be taking up Eve Tuck’s suggestion of ‘studying up’: I’ll be examining the history, culture and politics of wildfire management in Saskatchewan, focusing on how particular ideas of ‘nature’, ‘community’, ‘family’ and ‘wellbeing’ have come to be embedded in wildfire science and technologies. In doing so, I hope to keep open the possibility that wildfires can be managed differently, and in ways that foreground community self-determination and definitions of wellbeing.

This proposed research was first presented at the Northern Exposures workshop and meeting in Edmonton, May 8-9th. The meeting was convened by my supervisor, Dr. Arn Keeling and involved discussions with long-term northern activists and researchers about the politics and ethics of doing research in northern communities. We talked about how and in what instances this type of research should be done (there are many instances in which it shouldn’t), how researchers make themselves accountable and to whom (e.g. to community determined deadlines, not to SSHRC).

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Burned trees near La Ronge, SK. Photo: A. Zahara 2017

My proposal on wildfires was also presented in poster form at the Canadian Association of Geographers in Toronto, ON May 28-June 3rd. My poster, entitled ‘Understanding Wildfires as Pollution in the Northern Saskatchewan, can be seen here: Forest Fire CAG 2017.

 

 

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Toxic Expertise Workshop

Very much looking forward presenting at the ‘Pollution, Environmental Justice, and Citizen Science’  workshop held at the University of Warwick, May 3rd and 4th, 2017. The workshop is part of the Toxic Expertise: Environmental Justice and the Global Petrochemical Industry research project, led by Dr. Alice Mah. The project focuses on debates arising between ‘experts’ and supposed ‘non-experts’ about contaminant-related issues.

The paper I’ll be presenting is co-written with Dr. Max Liboiron, and examines the ways in which our lab, Civic Lab for Environmental Action Research (CLEAR), is incorporating the concept of ‘ethnographic refusal’ into citizen science. CLEAR is an STS-informed, feminist and justice-based marine science lab, directed by Dr. Liboiron, that examines plastic pollution.  Abstract below.

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Cod is an important local food that was examined by CLEAR as part of a citizen science research project on marine plastics. Photo by Bojan Furst, taken during the Newfoundland cod fishery.

 

Refusal in Citizen science: A Decolonial, Ethical Approach to Data Circulation (or Not)

Ethnographic refusal is an methodological approach originating in anthropology about not disclosing data. At first, settler anthropologists saw refusing to disclose all information as an ethical problem as the right to know was paramount. Over time, Indigenous scholars have rearticulated refusal as a decolonial and deeply ethical method; settler researchers and audiences should not be able to access all information about Indigenous and other groups, and that the refusal to recount some information so it remains locally controlled and related is sometimes the more ethical stance. In this paper, we explore how our citizen science laboratory (Civic Laboratory for Environmental Action Research, or CLEAR) has brought ethnographic refusal and people’s right to refuse into the natural sciences through a case of studying plastic pollution in sustenance food webs in Newfoundland, Canada. Refusal and other decolonizing methods are under-explored in citizen science literature and practices, and offer new avenues through which to think about methodologies and ethics for environmental justice premised on the idea that free and open circulation of contamination data is not inherently good. 

Updates! PhD Candidacy and Book Chapter

Okay, so after three months of reading and learning and thinking and writing (!), I passed my PhD comprehensive exam and am officially a PhD Candidate (with distinction!). To this end, I am *very* much looking forward to the next few months and years of thinking through, learning about/from my dissertation, which will be about forest fire issues in Northern Saskatchewan. Much to come in that regard.

Other than that, Dr. Myra J. Hird and I have a new book chapter out, entitled ‘The Arctic Wastes’ in the edited collection Anthropocene FeminismThe collection includes contributions from some notable feminist and queer theorists (Elizabeth Povinelli, Rosi Braidotti, anthfemStacy Alaimo, among many others), thinking about intersections in the Anthropocene.  Myra and I’s chapter is a call against, among other things, universalism in the Anthropocene. Chapter abstract below:

In the Eastern Canadian Arctic city of Iqaluit, a three-story pile of waste rests atop a peninsula that extends well
into Nunavut’s Frobisher Bay. The dump – which burned steadily throughout the summer of 2014- is one of several waste sites in Nunavut’s only official city. It joins an unknown number of waste sites that the US and Canadian military, oil, gas, and minerals industries have left abandoned on and in the landscape. In this chapter, we examine waste within the wider context of colonialism as well as contemporary neoliberal governance practices to argue that waste itself is part of a colonial context within which Inuit and other Aboriginal peoples in northern Canada continue to live. Waste is a provocative material concept with which to think about neo-coloniality, and in the context of the Anthropocene takes on a distinct hue. Whether in the form of mining, nuclear, industrial, hazardous, sewage or municipal, and whether it is dumped, landfilled, incinerated or buried deep underground, waste constitutes perhaps the most abundant and enduring trace of the human for epochs to come. In this chapter, we take up the challenge posed by Dipesh Chakrabarty to conceptualize the neo-colonial subject within the context of the Anthropocene, wherein humanity is re-characterized as a geophysical force. While the Anthropocene speaks of a globalized human race to whom past and present generations project responsibility and reparation, we emphasize that the effects of this waste landscape – neo-colonialism’s dividend – is differentially experienced by Inuit people living in Canada’s North. Unlike Chakrabarty, we argue that the dangerous irony of the Anthropocene is less that the possibility of sovereignty has collapsed and more that the various technologies predicted to “solve” our global environmental problems are framed through an under- standing of sovereignty that always separates waste from resource, dirt from clean, and uncivilized from civilized—a configuration that, as the Anthropocene has already begun to show us, is inevitably doomed to failure.

 

Many updates soon.

New Paper in Marine Pollution Bulletin

Okay, so it’s been awhile since posting any updates here– though I contend that it’s because I’ve been busy writing: for courses, for the Anthropocene Campus, and even for some publications! Anyway, over the next few weeks, I’m going to update this site with some of the writing that I’ve published over the past six months or so.  This includes several posts on Discard Studies, some chapters submitted to edited collections, and more.

To start, I’m very excited to share that we, in my amazing feminist science and technology lab, Civic Lab for Environmental Action Research (CLEAR), have published our first paper (Liboiron et al. 2016) in Marine Pollution Bulletin, entitled ‘Low plastic ingestion rate in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Newfoundland destined for human consumption collected through citizen science methods.‘ Woot!

Some highlights of our paper include:

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  • Plastic ingestion rate of 2.4% for Atlantic cod (n = 205)
  • First recorded baseline for fish in Newfoundland, Canada
  • This plastic ingestion prevalence rate is among the lowest recorded to date.
  • Used citizen science to collect GI tracts from fish destined for human consumption

There are a number of other aspects of this study that are not discussed in the paper that make the study both important and novel. As CLEAR is a feminist marine science lab, we aim to include values of equity and justice into every aspect of our research: as such, we used only scientific protocols that citizens (or non-institution affiliated or heavily funded scientists) could use (See this article by Max Liboiron for why this is important); our authorship order was consensus and equity dave_23_smaller_finalbased, acknowledging difference in social position of authors and multiple types of labour (field work, data collection, and emotional labour– not just writing!); and, lastly, we held a public meeting to ensure the community of fishers that might be impacted by our study agreed to us publishing the results. Our paper is also one of the first few plastic pollution studies where a species was select based on placed-based cultural importance and local consumption practices.

A full pre-print version of the paper is available, here.

Full citation:

Liboiron, Max., Liboiron, France., Wells, Emily., Richárd, Natalie., Zahara, Alexander., Mather, Charles., Bradshaw, Hillary., and Judyannet Murichi. (2016) Low plastic ingestion rate in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from Newfoundland destined for human consumption collected through citizen science methods. Marine Pollution Bulletin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.10.043

More to come!

Call For Papers: “Ethics and Transboundary Waste Movements” at the Annual Meeting of the CAG May 30-June 4, 2016

John-Michael Davis (PhD Candidate, Memorial University) and I will be hosting a special session, entitled ‘Ethics and Transboundary Waste Movements” at this year’s Canadian Association of Geographers Annual Meeting in Halifax, Nova Scotia (May 31st-June 4th, 2016). If interested, please send abstracts of no more than 200 words to John-Michael Davis at jmed45@mun.ca and Alex Zahara at ardz76@mun.ca by March 20th. The following is our CFP:

This session invites papers exploring ethical considerations of transboundary waste movement.

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Abandoned military wastes at the North 40 dump in Iqaluit, Nunavut. Photo by A. Zahara
Over the last decade, geographers of waste have demonstrated how discards move across various ecological, legal, and cultural boundaries: recycling and ‘Zero Waste’ initiatives move waste across national and provincial borders (MacBride 2011); plastics circulate transnationally through ocean gyres (Liboiron 2015); and emissions from incinerators climb their way through arctic food webs (Downie and Fenge 2003). Among other things, geographical studies have noted how the movement of waste matters, both politically and materially – waste and the consequences of waste are differentially understood and experienced (Gray-Cosgrove et al. 2015). Moreover, the varied stakeholders involved in managing wastes (e.g. industry, government, public and activist groups) often operate within competing ethical parameters, where the difference between right and wrong might involve balancing municipal budgets, tending to industry profit margins, or protecting environment and human health.

In this session, we welcome empirical case studies that critically analyze spatial patterns and local experiences of waste, as well as more conceptual papers that theorize and challenge contemporary understandings of ethics in waste movement. Submissions may address, but are not limited to, the following topics:

  • Differences between and competition within formal and informal sectors of waste trade
  • Material geographies of waste (e.g. e-waste, food waste, marine plastics, corpses, feces, volatile contaminants, etc.)
  • Borders and waste, including: physical, ecological, political, or imagined borders
  • Waste management systems and the ‘right to pollute’
  • Transboundary legislation and waste
  • Ethics and methodologies in examining transboundary waste movement (participatory action research, activist methods, ethnography, decolonization, etc.)
  • Non-human geographies and waste
  • The role of geographers in addressing environmental and social justice

References:

Downie, D. L. & Fenge, T. (2003). Northern Lights Against POPs: Combatting Toxic Threats in the Arctic. McGill-Queens University Press.

Gray-Cosgrove, C., Liboiron, M. & Lepawsky, J. (2015). The challenges of temporarilty to depollution and remediation. S.A.P.I.E.N.S [Online]. 8: https://sapiens.revues.org/1740

Liboiron, M. (2015). Redefining pollution and action: The matter of plastics. Journal of Material Culture Online first: doi:10.1177/1359183515622966

MacBride S (2011) Recycling Reconsidered: The Present Failure and Future Promise of Environmental Action in the United States. MIT Press.

 

Looking forward to seeing you there!

The (After)Life of Plastics

When we dispose* of plastics, they never really disappear. Plastics live on in bodies of water, are passed around through ecosystems (big and small), and even weasel their way inside the bodies of animals, human and nonhuman alike. In the best case scenario, plastics are entombed inside capped landfills that they will undoubtedly outlast. No one really knows how long plastics remain in the environment, but they are manufactured to endure.

A few years ago, I had the opportunity to take an undergraduate course at the University of Hawai’i at Hilo, entitled Marine Debris in the Pacific Ocean. The course examined the contemporary scientific literature regarding the ‘afterlives’ of ocean plastics. Once plastics end up in the ocean, they photodegrade, meaning that they are broken down indefinitely (by sun, waves, and wind) into smaller and smaller plastic pieces, which are eventually known as microplastics. During this process, plastics are sometimes ingested by fish, plankton, and other animals. They become entangled in wildlife, serve as rafts for invasive species, and even absorb hormone disrupting chemicals. Depending on where they end up, some plastics will combine with coral and lava, forming a new type of rock that scientists have coined ‘plastiglomerate‘.

In order to examine these processes, my class worked on several scientific research projects on Hawai’i Island’s Kamilo beach. Here, plastics were variously sorted, counted, photographed, collected, placed in garbage bags, and discarded.

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Last week, Dr. Max Liboiron of Memorial University photographed two pieces of plastics that I collected from Kamilo: the first, a piece of ‘shark bitten plastic’ (or sharkastic); the second, a fragment of plastiglomerate. Her pictures highlight the very social and material consequences of plastics that become part of ocean ecosystems. Like most plastics in the ocean, these pieces are scratched, fouled, chewed on, and weathered– a display of  anthropogenic ocean ecology, to be inherited by future generations.

All photos have been made available by Max through a creative commons license.

For further reading, see:

Carson, H. (2013). The incidence of plastic ingestion by fishes: From the prey’s perspective. Marine Pollution Bulletin

Carson et al. (2013). The plastic-associated microorganisms of the North Pacific Gyre. Marine Pollution Bulletin.

Eriksen et al. (2014) Plastic Pollution in the World’s Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea. PLoS ONE.

Liboiron, M. (2015). Redefining pollution and action: The matter of plastics. Journal of Material Culture.

Liboiron, M. (2014) Modern waste is an economic strategy. Discard Studies blog.

*This is not to say that ‘disposal’ is to blame for plastics ending up in the ocean. Rather, the role of government and industry in allowing the creation and continued use and proliferation of these products in the first instance, is a more useful target for activists and others concerned with the effects of ocean plastics.

End of year recap and some updates, 2015

The year 2015 was a big one– though one with very few updates to the blog (thanks for the reminder WordPress Annual Report!). On that note, I’m committed to making more blog updates in 2016, including more original content and writing, along with the usual research updates. That said, I figured I would do a brief recap of some of the conferences and events I didn’t discuss in 2015! Here are the big ones:

 1. American Association of Geographers Annual Meeting (April 2015). Paper Contribution: Technostories: (de)Growth in the Aftermath of the Iqaluit ‘Dumpcano’. Chicago, IL.

This talk was part of the ‘Discards, Diverse Economies, and Degrowth‘ session at the AAG, which was organized by Dr. Max Liboiron and Dr. Josh Lepawsky of Memorial University. After our session, papers were work-shopped and submitted as a forum to Society and Space open site. My contribution examines the ‘next steps’ for waste management after a costly dump fire in Iqaluit, the capital city of Nunavut Territory. While some community members focused on technological improvements to waste management infrastructure, others pointed towards changing community understandings of waste and environment– as caused by the Nunavut’s recent colonization–as the source of increased waste issues. Though I did not submit my paper to the Society and Space forum, a modified version appears in the conclusion of my Master’s thesis.

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Spotted with Cassandra Kuyvenhoven: Some mysterious green goo (waste?) in downtown Chicago.
2. Northern Research Symposium. (April 2015) Poster contribution: Taima: Risk and Uncertainty in the Iqaluit Dumpcano. Kingston, ON.

This poster was an updated (and poster-fied) version of a talk I gave at Arctic Change in Ottawa, ON in 2014. I discuss this poster and the Iqaluit dump fire (which coincided with my fieldwork in Iqaluit in the summer of 2014) in an interview with the Queen’s Gazette, which can be read here.

3. Contested Expertise, Toxic Environments (September 2015). Paper contribution: Taima: Risk Governance in the Iqaluit Dumpcano. Claremont, CA.

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Contested Expertise, Toxic Environments participants in Claremont California. Photo Credit: Hillary Kirkham

The interdisciplinary paper workshop and conference was held at the Claremont Colleges in California, and brought together researchers from a variety of disciplines, including history of science, science and technology studies, anthropology and more. The two day conference involved work-shopping each others papers, which covered topics such as nuclear fallout at Hiroshima, insecticides, garbage dumps, abandoned superfund sites, and radiation. The conference also included a screening of a new film on nuclear waste storage entitled Containmentand a Skype discussion with director and academic, Dr. Peter Galison. My paper, which examines risk management in an Arctic dump fire, is to be included in an edited collection with the group.

4. Next Steps

I am currently awaiting my supervisory committee to review a report that I’ve written for the City of Iqaluit based on my Master’s research. The report includes a two-page summary of my thesis, a bibliography of waste management reports and journal articles previously conducted on waste in Iqaluit, and a list of citizen suggestions for improving waste management in the community. My hope is that the report will be a practical output of my master’s research and helpful for those charged with managing waste in the Iqaluit community. Once the report has been approved, I look forward to submitting it to Iqaluit City Council (likely early 2016). I’ll also post a link to the report on my website and give a copy of it to the Nunavut Research Institute to ensure the report is publicly available.

In the meantime, I look forward to moving to St. John’s, Newfoundland and beginning my PhD research at Memorial University next week!

If anyone is interested in copies of the talks, feel free to e-mail me at ardz76@mun.ca

All best in 2016,

Alex